Proving for Muslims the Crucifixion and Resurrection of Jesus

Prove for Muslims the Crucifixion and Resurrection of Jesus
November 2016 version

The two most central doctrines of Christianity are Jesus dying on the cross for our sins, and Jesus rising from the dead. 1 Cor 15:1-8 says, "Now, brothers, I want to remind you of the gospel I preached to you, which you received and on which you have taken your stand. By this gospel you are saved, if you hold firmly to the word I preached to you. Otherwise you have believed in vain. For what I received I passed on to you as for first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Peter, and then to the Twelve. After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles, and last of all he appeared to me also, as to one abnormally born."

Muslims usually will not deny Jesus appeared to be crucified, but they claim God miraculously switched Jesus and another, which would have tricked the Romans and Jewish authorities. But then God's followers would all have been tricked too. Imagine spending the rest of you life telling others that Jesus died for us and rose from the dead, and then being killed for what he preached. Then God says, "Ha, ha, ha! I sure tricked you when you followed me." Do you think the True God would say this? - certainly not! God would not deceive those who were killed for Him, after devoting their whole lives to Him.

The crucifixion and resurrection were two of the most important teachings of the early Christians. But if these occurred, as the early Christians saw, then what does that make Islam?

This article shows what Jesus Himself taught about His death and resurrection in God's scripture, and evidence for the accuracy of these quotes. We write this not out of animosity, but out of love and concern for Muslims. We want them to know that they need to leave the falsehood of Islam and know the life-saving teaching of the prophet Jesus.

What is the Atonement?

The atonement is the core Christian doctrine Jesus, Who was sinless, and Who voluntarily took upon Himself the punishment for our sins. As Isaiah 53 prophesied, Christ suffered unjustly, by choice, in order to save us from our sins for us to go to Heaven.

In one sense, nobody has chosen to die for God. After all, as sinful people we all are going to die anyway, so the most we can say is that people have chosen "earlier death" for God. However, Jesus was different. He was sinless and did not deserve to die. Yet He chose to die in our place, and descend to the grave in order to pay the just consequences of our sins. Every prophet has died (except Enoch and Elijah), but Jesus' death was different, because He was the sinless sacrifice for our sins.

Not only did Jesus die, but He suffered the greatest humiliation for us. This righteous man was put to death as a treasonous criminal, even though many of the people putting him to death knew He was not guilty of a capital crime. I can understand somewhat why it is so difficult for Muslims to believe that God would have one of His prophets to suffer such great shame. But they miss seeing just how much Jesus loved us, actually choosing the shame, the nails, and the agonizing death.

So while no one merits heaven on their own, God graciously and freely gives the gift of heaven to all who will accept it. To all who accept Jesus as their Lord and Savior, they can live a new life right now, serving God, as well as have the guarantee of an eternal life of joy with God.

Now before trusting in this, a Muslim might say: "show me the evidence". Here is the evidence of Jesus dying on the cross for our sins.

Jesus on His Atonement

"Just as the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many." (Matthew 20:28)

"For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many." (Mark 10:45)

"While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to his disciples saying, 'Take and eat; this is my body.' Then he took the cup, gave thanks and offered it to them, saying, 'Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins.'" (Matthew 26:26-28) See also Luke 22:19-22)

"While they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, 'Take it; this is my body.' Then he took the cup, gave thanks and offered it to them, and they all drank from it. 'This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many,' he said to them. 'I tell you the truth, I will not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it anew in the kingdom of God.'" (Mark 14:22-25)

Jesus Would Be Betrayed

"Listen carefully to what I am about to tell you: The Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men." (Luke 9:44)

""Jesus replied, 'The one who has dipped his hand into the bowl with me will betray me.'" (Matthew 26:23). See also Mark 14:18-21 and John 13:26.

"...Look, the hour is near, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners. Rise, let us go! Here comes my betrayer!" (Matthew 45b-46) See also Mark 14:41-42.

"Now the betrayer had arranged a signal with them: 'The one I kiss is the man; arrest him and lead him away under guard.'" (Mark 14:44)

"...Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?" (Luke 22:49)

See also John 13:18-19,21b.

Jesus on His Death and Resurrection

"As you know, the Passover is two days away - and the Son of Man will be handed over to be crucified." (Matthew 26:2)

"I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep." (John 10:11) "I am the good shepherd; I know my sheep and my sheep know me - just as the Father knows me and I know the Father - and I lay down my life for the sheep." (John 10:14-15)

"When she poured this perfume on my body, she did it to prepare me for burial." (Matthew 26:12)

Jesus also spoke parabolically about his death in Matthew 21:38-39 and Luke 20:14-15.

Jesus also spoke parabolically of His resurrection in Luke 16:31.

On the Mount of Olives

"But after I have risen, I will go ahead of you into Galilee." (Matthew 26:32; Mark 14:28)

After Peter's Confession at Caesarea Philippi

"And he said, 'The Son of Man must suffer many things and be rejected by the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life." (Luke 9:22)

"From that time on Jesus began to explain to his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem and suffer many things at the hands of the elders, chief priests and teachers of the law, and that he must be killed and on the third day be raised to life." (Matthew 16:21)

After the Transfiguration

After the transfiguration, "As they were coming down the mountain, Jesus instructed them, 'Don't tell anyone what you have seen, until the Son of Man has been raised from the dead.'" (Matthew 17:9) See also Mark 9:9-10

In Galilee

"When they came together in Galilee, he [Jesus] said to them, 'The Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men. They will kill him, and on the third day he will be raised to life.' And the disciples were filled with grief." (Matthew 17:22-23)

"...He said to them, 'The Son of Man is going to be betrayed into the hands of men. They will kill him, and after three days he will rise.'" Mark 9:31)

Before Entering Jericho

"Now as Jesus was going up to Jerusalem, he took the twelve disciples aside and said to them, 'We are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be betrayed to the chief priests and the teachers of the law. They will condemn him to death and will turn him over to the Gentiles to be mocked and flogged and crucified. On the third day he will be raised to life!'" (Matthew 20:17-19) See also Mark 10:33-34.

"Jesus took the Twelve aside and told them, 'We are going up to Jerusalem, and everything that is written by the prophets about the Son of Man will be fulfilled. He will be handed over to the Gentiles. They will mock him, insult him, spit on him, flog him, and kill him. On the third day he will rise again.'" (Luke 18:31-33)

In Jerusalem

"He [Jesus] said this to show the kind of death he was going to die." (John 12:33)

After His Resurrection

"...Why are you troubled, and why do doubts rise in your minds? Look at my hands and my feet. It is I myself! Touch me and see; a ghost does not have flesh and bones, as you see I have." (Luke 24:38-39)

"Then he [Jesus] opened their minds so they could understand the Scriptures. He told them, 'This is what is written: The Christ will suffer and rise from the dead on the third day, and repentance and forgiveness of sins will be preached in his name to all nations, beginning at Jerusalem. You are witnesses of these things." (Luke 24:45-48)

See also Jesus' words in Revelation 1:18. Angels also testified of Jesus' death and resurrection in Matthew 28:7; Luke 24:7 and Revelation 5:9,12.

Manuscript Evidence

While at least one Muslim has tried to deny these teachings are in the Bible, one can open any Bible today and see these verses. More commonly, Muslims will try to claim these were later additions. But just how strong is the evidence that these were in the originals?

The Chester Beatty I Papyrus (p45) contains all four gospels and Acts. It was copied 100-150 A.D.. (It was formerly thought to be late 2nd or early 3rd century A.D.) The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts has a photograph showing part of p45 on p.146. A General Introduction to the Bible p.389 says the original scroll was about 220 leaves, of which we have 30 leaves preserved. On the preserved leaves are:

Matthew (2 leaves) 20:24-32; 21:13-19; 25:41-26:39)

Mark (6 leaves) 4:36-5:2; 5:16-26; 5:38-6:3; 6:15-25,36-50; 7:3-15; 7:25-8:1; 8:10-26; 8:34-9:9; 9:18-31; 11:27-12:1; 12:5-8,13-19,24-28

Luke (7 leaves) 6:31-41; 6:45-7:7; 9:26-41; 9:45-10:1; 10:6-22; 10:26-11:1; 11:6-25,28-46; 11:50-12:13; 12:18-37; 12:42-13:1; 13:6-24; 13:29-14:10; 14:17-33

John (2 leaves) 4:51,54; 5:21,24; 10:7-25; 10:30-11:10; 11:18-36,42-57.

Acts (13 leaves)

The Bodmer II Papyrii (p66) was copied c.175 or c.125-150 A.D.) It originally had 76 leaves (=156 pages) and has page numbers. Today we have preserved 104 leaves and fragments of 40 other leaves. A photograph of John 6:58-64 from the Bodmer II Papyrus is in the New International Dictionary of the Bible p.1003. It contains:

John 1:1-6:11, 6:35b-14:26,29-30; 15:2-26; 16:2-4; 16:6-7; 16:10-20:20; 20:22-23; 20:25-21:9; 21:12,17 (fragments of John 19:16).

Bodmer 14/15 Papyrii (p75) is typically dated 175-200 A.D., or 175-225 A.D. However, its handwriting is very similar to another document, Papyrus Fuad XIX, which is known to have been written 145-146 A.D. P75 originally had 114 leaves, and we have preserved 102 leaves. It has most of Luke and John. (A General Introduction to the Bible p.390) The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts has a picture of part of it on p.496. Specifically, it has

Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39, 41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24:53

John 1:1-11:45; 11:48-57; 12:3-13:1; 13:8-9; 14:8-29; 15:7-8

p90 (c.175 A.D.) of John 18:36-19:7

 

The Rest of the New Testament

There are too many verses to list them all, but here are some of them.

Just as Jesus commanded God's followers to observe the Lord's Supper, 1 Corinthians 11:26 says that they observed this. "For whenever you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes."

The women observed where Jesus' body was laid in Luke 23:55.

Jesus is our ransom. 1 Timothy 2:6

John the Baptist (Yahya in Arabic) called Jesus the "lamb of God" John1:29. Peter did also in 1 Peter 1:19.

Jesus came to give abundant life (John 10:10), save sinners (1 Timothy 1:15), save the world (John 3:17), be a sin offering (Romans 8:3), reconcile. (Ephesians 2:13-18) thru His blood on the cross. (Jn 1:29; Hebrews 10:19)

testify to the truth Jn 18:37; atoning sacrifice 1 Jn 3:8;4:10

Jesus purifies us from all unrighteousness 1 John 1:9, saving completely, not just spiritually, by the sacrifice of His body and blood. Hebrews 7:25;10:14-20; Philippians 3:21; Romans 8:32

After completing His mission, Jesus ascended to heaven and is now at the right hand of God. Acts 2:33;7:55-6; Colossians 3:1; Hebrews 1:13; 1 Peter 3:22; Psalm 110:1; Matthew 22:44;26:64

Christ tasted death for everyone (Hebrews 2:16).

Jesus is our Savior and ransom. 1 John 2:2; Hebrews 2:9;1; 9:15,28; 1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Timothy 4:10

Never forget we were bought at a price, Jesus' blood. 1 Corinthians 6:20; 7:23; 2 Peter 2:1; Acts 20:28

The Old Testament

Even the Old Testament prophets Isaiah and David prophesied of the death of the Messiah.

We know that Isaiah 53 refers to the Messiah because:

A person: The Messiah was a man or sorrows (53:3), with an appearance (52:2) and no children (53:8)

Take on others' sins as a guilt offering (53:10), took upon himself our infirmities and sorrows (53:4), suffered reproach as though struck by God (53:4) pierced and crushed for our sins (53:5).

Died and yet see his seed: assigned a grace with the wicked and the rich (53:9) yet we will see his offspring (53:10)

In contrast to this, the Jewish people never claimed to be a guilt offering (53:1), of that they interceded for the sins of others (53:12), or bore our infirmities and sorrows (53:4). The Jewish people would not say about themselves "The punishment that brought peace was upon him, and by his wounds we are healed." (53:5f)

We know that Psalm 22 refers to the Messiah because: This does not refer to David, for nobody pierced David's hands and feet. (It is also possible it could mean "lionlike", but even so, David's hands and feet were not bent over like lion's claws either.) David did not have his garments divided among them. David was not despised because it appeared God was not delivering him (22:6-8).

Since this psalm is not about things David personally experienced, to whom could it refer? It refers to someone who followed God from the womb (verse 9), yet who was despised as abandoned by God (verses 6-8), and asks "My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?" (verse 1). It is someone who had their hands and feet pierced (verse 16), who was brought to the dust of death (verse 15). This sounds like the same suffering servant in Isaiah 53, and this refers to the Messiah.

Evidence from the Early Church

Muslims believe a great many things about Mohammed from the hadiths, which were preserved 200 years after Mohammed died. While these are not the words of Jesus, this is evidence of Jesus' teaching in the early disciples. These five early authors all wrote within 140 years after Jesus died.

Clement of Rome in First Clement ch.21 says, "Let us reverence the Lord Jesus Christ, whose blood was given for us;" In chapter 16 he quotes Isaiah 53 saying as prophesying Christ.

Letter of Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) ch.7 "and whosoever does not confess the testimony of the cross, is of the devil;"

Mathetes to Diognetus (c.130 A.D.) chapter 9 "He [God] gave His own Son as a ransom for us, the holy One for transgressors, the blameless One for the wicked...." chapter 11 (I do not speak of things strange to me, nor do I aim at anything inconsistent with right reason; but having been a disciple of the Apostles, I am become a teacher of the Gentiles."

Letter of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.5 "For to this end the Lord endured to deliver up His flesh to corruption, that we might be sanctified through the remission of sins, which is effected by His blood of sprinkling. He then quotes Isaiah 53 as referring to Jesus.

First Apology of Justin Martyr (114-165 A.D.) chapter 41 "David, intimated that Christ, after He had been crucified, should reign,..." In chapter 50 he also quotes Isaiah 53 as referring to Christ.

There are also a great many others after this time, including Athenagoras (177 A.D.), Melito of Sardis (died 180 A.D.), and Theophilus of Antioch, (168-181/188 A.D.).

The Muslim Alternative(?)

Muslims agree that Jesus was a prophet who was betrayed by Judas. Most importantly, they also agree that Jesus appeared to be crucified on the cross. But most Muslims say that God miraculously "fooled" everyone by switching the bodies of Jesus and Judas. Thus it was Judas, not Jesus, who was really crucified. Jesus escaped and according to both the Qur'an (Sura 3:55; 4:158) and most Muslims Jesus ascended to Heaven. (Ahmiddiya Muslims deny this part and say Jesus traveled to India, married, and died there.)

Jamal Badawi apparently has a different view, however. He denies the historicity of all appearances of Jesus after His crucifixion. I am not sure if Badawi thinks Jesus ascended to heaven immediately, or if he was on earth for while, but nobody recorded any appearance of Him. Jesus coming through a locked door (John 20:19) is not an issue, because Jesus having a miracle of a glorified body does not negate it also being physical and doing things like eating (Luke 24:42-43). As for Jesus appearing initially unrecognized (Luke 24:15), Badawi has to recognize that not only can people with different clothes be unrecognized, but God can make people be recognized when He wants them to be.

Evidence???: There is no evidence, from any ancient Christians that God switched bodies of Judas and Jesus.

Conclusion: All agree that God allowed a prophet of God to be betrayed, that Jesus at least appeared to have died on the cross, and God allowed at least the form of Jesus to suffer the humiliation of being on the cross. Either it really was Jesus who died on the cross, or else God fooled not only the Jews and Romans, but all of His faithful followers.

The Warning of Jesus

"Then he [Jesus] said to them all: 'If anyone would come after me, he must deny himself and take up his cross daily and follow me. For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for me will save it. What good is it for a man to gain the whole world, and yet lose or forfeit his very self? If anyone is ashamed of me and my words, the Son of Man will be ashamed of him when he comes in his glory and in the glory of the Father and of the holy angels." (Luke 9:23-26) See also Matthew 16:24-27; Mark 8:34-38.

 

 

The Early Church on Christ Dying for Us

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) "how precious that blood [of Jesus] is to God, which, having been shed for our salvation, has set the grace of repentance before the whole world." 1 Clement ch.7 p.7

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) Rahab's scarlet thread represents the redemption through the blood of the Lord. 1 Clement ch.12 p.8

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) wrote frequently of Christ as God. For example, he wrote of "the blood of God" in chapter 1 of his Letter to the Ephesians p.49

Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) "Let us reverence the Lord Jesus Christ, whose blood was given for us;" 1 Clement ch.21 p.11 In ch.16 p.9 he quotes Isaiah 53 saying as prophesying Christ.

To Diognetus (c.130 A.D.) chapter 9 "He [God] gave His own Son as a ransom for us, the holy One for transgressors, the blameless One for the wicked...." chapter 11 (I do not speak of things strange to me, nor do I aim at anything inconsistent with right reason; but having been a disciple of the Apostles, I am become a teacher of the Gentiles."

Letter of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) chapter 5 "For to this end the Lord endured to deliver up His flesh to corruption, that we might be sanctified through the remission of sins, which is effected by His blood of sprinkling. He then quotes Isaiah 53 as referring to Jesus.

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) "and whosoever does not confess the testimony of the cross, is of the devil;" Letter of Polycarp ch.7 p.34

First Apology of Justin Martyr (135-165 A.D.) chapter 41 "David, intimated that Christ, after He had been crucified, should reign,..." In chapter 50 he also quotes Isaiah 53 as referring to Christ.

We are no longer purified by the blood of goats, and sheep, or the ashes of a heifer, but by faith through the blood of Christ, and through His death, who died for this very reason." Justin Martyr's Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.13 p.200

Tatian's Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 31.5 p.91 says Jesus was a ransom.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) says that Isaac almost being sacrificed was a type of Christ. "not shrinking form shedding the blood of his son." From the Catena on Genesis ch.5 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.759

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "sealed our souls with his own spirit, and the members of our body with His blood." On Pascha stanza 68 p.55

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis (170-177/180 A.D.) (partial) When Jesus was killed water and blood, two purifying elements poured forth from Jesus' side. Fragment 3 vol.8 p.773

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "He was Himself the Word of God made the Son of man, receiving from the Father the power of remission of sin; since He was a man, and since He was God, in order that since as man He suffered for us,... He has destroyed the handwriting of our debt, and fastened it to the cross" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.27.3 p.545

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Christ, on the other hand, in His times, carried His "wood" on His own shoulders, adhering to the horns of the cross, with a thorny crown encircling His head. For Him it behooved to be made a sacrifice on behalf of all Gentiles,..." Tertullian An Answer to the Jews ch.13 p.170-171.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "... who have been redeemed from corruption by the blood of our Lord." The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.215

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) The Word Himself shed Hs own blood for us to save humanity. Clement of Alexandria The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.220

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "All the more fully: 'Little children, these things have I written to you, lest ye sin; and if ye shall have sinned, an Advocate we have with God the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous; and, He is the propitiation for our sins.'" On Modesty ch.19 p.96

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) Commentary on Daniel (fragment 1) ch.20 p.181 "saying, Thou art worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for Thou was slain, and hast redeemed us to God by Thy blood." See also Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.15 p.229

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "A man, therefore, could not give anything as an exchange for his own life, but God gave an exchange for the life of us all, 'the precious blood of Christ Jesus,' according as 'we were bought with a price,' 'having been redeemed, not with corruptible things as silver or gold, but with precious blood, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot,' even of Christ." Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.28 p.465

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.13 p.661 says that Jesus redeemed the seven churches at the great price of His blood.

Treatise on Rebaptism (254-257 A.D.) "redeemed with the most precious blood of the Lord" ch.14 p.675

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) says that Christ redeemed us by His cross and blood. Epistles of Cyprian letter 59 ch.2 p.355

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) (implied) "and Scripture tells us that He died for us, and was raised again" Concerning the Trinity ch.25 p.636

Celerinus (c.246-258 A.D.) (implied) in his letter to Lucian mentions being washed in the sacred blood. Epistles of Cyprian Letter 20 p.298

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes Romans 5:8-9 that we are justified by Christ's blood. "regarding Christ's blood, showing that it was truly poured out for our salvation." and then quotes Romans 5:8-9. Dialogue on the True Faith Fifth part section 12 p.162-163

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 15:1-43 as by the Apostle, including Christ died for our sins. Dialogue on the True Faith 5th part ch.6 p.155-156

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions Jesus "freed us by His blood from sin" and that He rose from the dead. Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.344

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "by it [the Passover] also the death of Christ is personified, by whose blood souls made safe and sealed shall be preserved from wrath in the burning of the world; whilst the first-born, the sons of Satan, shall be destroyed with an utter destruction by the avenging angels, who shall reverence the seal of the Blood impressed upon the former." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 9 ch.1 p.345

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) (partial) mentions Christ's body and blood in the context of the Lord's Supper, but does not actually say shedding the blood or Christ dying for us. Canonical Epistle canon 8 p.272

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) quotes 1 John 2:1 "through Him who is 'our Advocate with the Father, and makes propitiation for our sins.' 'And if any man sin,' says he, 'we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: and He is the propitiation for our sins.'" The Canonical Epistle Canon 11 p.276

Athanasius (318 A.D.) says that Jesus ransomed the sins of all. The Incarnation ch.40.2 p.57. See also Incarnation of the Word ch.25.4 p.50

Athanasius (318 A.D.) says that Jesus is our ransom. The Incarnation ch.25.4 p.49-50

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (partial) says that Jesus shared in our flesh and blood, that through his death bring to nought the devil. Against the Heathen ch.10 p.41

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) mentions Christ dying to set us free from our sins. Like the Passover lamb, he shed His blood on the cross. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.2 p.128-129

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) mentions Christ dying to set us free form our sins. Like the Passover lamb, he shed His blood on the cross. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.2 p.128-129

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) (implied) says that Christ was the cause of our redemption, blood for blood. Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 5 ch.6 p.302

 

Early Church Writers on the Resurrection

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Let us consider, beloved, how the Lord continually proves to us that there shall be a future resurrection, of which He has rendered the Lord Jesus Christ the first-fruits by raising Him from the dead." 1 Clement ch.24 vol.1 p.11.

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) Jesus was raised from the dead. Ignatius' Letter to the Magnesians ch.9 p.62. See also Letter to the Ephesians ch.20 p.57

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) Jesus was truly persecuted under Pontius Pilate, truly crucified, died, and raised from the dead. Ignatius' Letter to the Trallians ch.9 p.70

Apology of Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) p.276 "He [Jesus] tasted death on the cross, ... And after three days He came to life again and ascended into heaven.".

Epistle of Barnabas ch.10 p.143 (100-150 A.D.) says that Christians keep the "eighth day" [i.e. Sunday] because that is the day Jesus rose from the dead. He later ascended into the heavens.

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) Jesus, born of a virgin, died and rose again, ascended to Heaven, and was call the Son of God. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.31 p.173

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) The Father raised Jesus from the dead. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.45 p.178

Polycarp to the Philippians (100-155 A.D.) ch.2 p.33 "believed in Him who raised up our Lord Jesus Christ from the dead." See also ibid ch.1 p.33.

Tatian's Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) sections 53 p.125-126 Jesus rose from the dead. Jesus tells Mary not to touch Him because He has not yet ascended to the Father. His body was no longer there, and He later appeared to Mary, Peter, and others.

Meleto/Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "This is He [Jesus] who took a bodily form in the Virgin, and was hanged upon the tree, and was buried within the earth, and suffered not dissolution; He who rose from the place of the dead, and raised up men from the earth - from the grace below to the height of heaven. This is the Lamb that was slain;..." in his discourse 5 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.757

Hegesippus (170-180 A.D.) says that while some sects "did not believe, either in a resurrection or in the coming of One to requite every man according to his works." Five Books of Commentaries on the Acts of the Church section 1 p.763

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "...the world will be judged in righteousness by the man Jesus whereof He hath given assurance by raising Him from the dead." Irenaeus in Against Heresies book 3 ch12.8 p.433

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says Jesus rose from the dead. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.3

Clement of Alexandria (198-202 A.D.) "the Son of God - of Him who made the universe - assumed flesh, and was conceived in the virgin's womb as His material body was produced), and subsequently, as was the case, suffered and rose again," Stromata book 6 ch.16 p.509-510

Tertullian (204-220 A.D.) "The rule of faith, indeed, is altogether one, alone, immoveable and irreformable ; the rule, to wit, of believing in one only God omnipotent, the Creator of the universe, and His Son Jesus Christ, born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius Pilate, raised again the third day from the dead, received in the heavens, sitting now at the right (hand) of the Father, destined to come to judge quick and dead through the resurrection of the flesh as well (as of the spirit)." On the Veiling of Virgins ch.1 p.27.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "...after His resurrection from the dead, which was effected on the third day,..." An Answer to the Jews ch.13 p.171

Tertullian (207-220 A.D.) "Was not God really crucified? And, having been really crucified, did He not really die? And, having indeed really died, did He not really rise again?" On the Flesh of Christ ch.5 p.525.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Christ died for our sins and rose in his flesh. It is the very foundation of the gospel, our salvation." Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.8 p.328

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "He was manifest as God and man. And it is easy to perceive the man in Him,..." Then he mentions Jesus being scourged by Pilate, dying, and raised by the Father on the third day. fragment from Commentary on Psalm 2 p.170.

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (implied) "The first law of God is the foundation of the subsequent law. Thee, indeed, it assigned to believe in the second law. Nor are threats from Himself, but from it, powerful over thee. Now astounded, swear that thou wilt believe in Christ; for the Old Testament proclaims concerning Him. For it is needful only to believe in Him who was dead, to be able to rise again to live for all time." Instructions of Commodianus ch.25 p.207

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "But as that material body of Jesus was sacrificed for Christ, and was buried, and was afterwards raised, so the whole body of Christ's saints is crucified along with Him," Commentary on John book 10 ch.20 p.401

Novatian (250/254-256/7 A.D.) He [Jesus] was raised again in the same bodily substance in which He died, is proved by the wounds of that very body, and thus He shows the laws of our resurrection in His flesh, in that He restored the same body in His resurrection which He had from us." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.10 p.620.

16 additional Pre-Nicene writers after this too.

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