Islam and Meat - part 1
Some Muslims says they cannot eat meat slaughtered by non-Muslims, or that they cannot eat meat if Allah's name was not said over it while slaughtering it. It may be that they don't know the Qur'an and hadiths very well; here is what the Qur'an and hadiths say about meat.
80 to 90% of Muslims are Sunni Muslims. Sunni Muslims accept as authoritative, the Qur'an and the sunna, or six authorized collections of hadiths: Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Nasa'i, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, and ibn-i-Majah. Many Sunnis also study the hadiths of Muwatta' Malik, though they regard Muwatta' Malik as less than the six. Here is what these books say for Muslims on eating meat.
Muslims Can Eat Meat Slaughtered by People of the Book
Sura 5:5 "This day are (all) things Good and pure made lawful unto you. The food of the people of the book is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them...." (labeled as Sura 5:6 in some translations)
"The animals slaughtered by the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) and their fat, whether those people were at war with the Muslims or not. The Statement of Allah: 'Lawful to you are (all) good things (5:4) Az-Zuhri said: There is no harm in eating animals slaughtered by Arab Christians. If you hear the one who slaughters the animals mentioning other than Allah's Name, don't eat of it, but if you do not hear that, then Allah has allowed the eating of animals slaughtered by them, though he knows their disbelief.
It is narrated that 'Ali gave a similar verdict.
Al-Hasan and Ibrahim said: There is no harm in eating of an animal slaughtered by an uncircumcised person. Ibn 'Abbas said: their food means their slaughtered animals." Bukhari vol.7 book 67 ch.22 p.302
"'Abd Allah b. 'Abbas was askd whether the animal slaughered by an Arab Christian was valid. He said: There is no harm, and then recited this verse: 'Whoever befreinds Unbelievers is one of them.'"250
Footnote 250 says "Ibn 'Abbas recited this verse in such a way as to indicate that, though it is right to eat meat of an animalslaughtered by an unbeliever, it is not right to make friends with them or to socialize with them." Muwatta' Malik book 9 ch.295 no.1020 p.220
"Allah's Apostle said that he met Zaid bin 'Amr Nufail at a place near Baldah and this had happened before Allah's Apostle received the Divine Inspiration. Allah's Apostle presented a dish of meat (that had been offered to him by the pagans) to Zaid bin 'Amr, but Zaid refused to eat of it and then said (to the pagans), 'I do not eat of what you slaughter on your An-Sab, nor do I eat except that on which Allah's Name has been mentioned on slaughtering.'" Bukhari vol.7 book 67 ch.16 no.407 p.297-298
Note that Zaid's opinion was before Mohammed received his message about just praying over it, and Zaid's opinion at this time contradicts what Mohammed said later in Bukhari vol.3 book 34 ch.6 no.273 p.156 and Bukhari vol.7 book 67 ch.21 no.415 p.302.
An Abrogated Verse of the Qur'an?
"Ibn 'Abbas said: The Verse: 'So eat of (meats) on which Allah's name hath been pronounced' [Sura 6:118] and the verse: 'Eat not of (meats) on which Allah's name hath not been pronounced,' [Sura 6:121] were abrogated, meaning an exception was made therein by the verse: 'The food of the people of the Book is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them.' [Sura 5:5] Abu Dawud vol.2 book 10 ch.1041 no.2811 p.791
If Allah's Name is Not Said over It, then say Allah's Name Over It and Eat It
Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 27 ch.4 no.3173 p.385 says, "...Upon this Allah, he Mighty and Glorious said; 'Eat not out of that on which Allah's Name is not mentioned.'"
"'A'isha (Allah be pleased with her) the mother of believers, is reported to have said that some people said, 'Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) people bring flesh to us. We do not know whether Allah's Name has been recited on it or not. (What should do with it)?' He [Mohammed] said, 'You yourselves recite the name and eat (it). They were recently in the state of infidelity" Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 27 ch.4 no.3174 p.385-386.
"Some people said, 'O Allah's Apostle! Meat is brought to us by some people and we are not sure whether the name of Allah has been mentioned on it or not (at the time of slaughtering the animals).' Allah's Apostle said (to them), 'Mention the name of Allah and eat it.'" Bukhari vol.3 book 34 ch.6 no.273 p.156
"A group of people said to the Prophet, 'Some people bring us meat and we do not know whether they have mentioned Allah's Name or not on slaughtering the animal.' He said, 'Mention Allah's Name on it and eat.' Those people had embraced Islam recently." Bukhari vol.7 book 67 ch.21 no.415 p.302. See also Muwatta' Malik book 8 ch.294 no.1016-1017 p.219.
"The people said to the Prophet , 'O Allah's Apostle! Here are people who have recently embraced Islam and they bring meat, and we do not know whether they had mentioned Allah's Name while slaughtering the animals or not.' The Prophet said, 'You should mention Allah's Name and eat.'" Bukhari vol.9 book 93 ch.13 no.495 p.366
What Else is OK for Muslims to Eat
It is OK to eat locusts. Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.817 no.4801-4803 p.1076-1077; Abu Dawud vol.3 book 21 ch.1438 no.3803-3805 p.1073.
It is OK to eat lizard. Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.816 no.4783-4800 p.1073-1076; Abu Dawud vol.3 book 21 ch.1431 no.3784-3787 p.1069; Muwatta' Malik book 32 ch.561 no.1744-1746 p.410-411.
Eating fat is OK. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 29 no.3274 p.437
It is OK to eat sea creatures. Muwatta' Malik book 10 ch.300 no.1032-1035 p.222
It was OK to eat an already dead whale. Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.813 no.475604757 p,1069-1070 (or big fish) Muwatta' Malik book 32 ch.537 no.1667 p.390).
It is OK to eat hare (rabbit). Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.818 no.4804 p.1077; Abu Dawud vol.3 book 21 ch.1430 no.3782-3783 p.1068-1069.
It is OK to consume camel meat, milk, and urine. Qur'an Sura 22:36; Sahih Muslim vol.1 book 1 no.220 p.70. See also Bukhari vol.4 book 52 no.261 p.162 and Bukhari vol.7 book 71 no.589,590 p.399
In God's Old Testament
Like Muslims, under Moses, the Israelites could not eat pork (Lev 11:7), blood (Lev 19:26), many birds with talons (Lev 11:13-19).
Unlike Muslims, under Moses God's people could not eat camel (Lev 11:4), whale, shrimp, etc. (Lev 11:9-10), lizard (Lev 11:29), rabbit (Lev 11:6), some locusts (Lev 11:20-23), or fat (Lev 3:17).
Mohammed Knew He Changed the Old Testament Prohibition on Camels
Camel meat and milk were known to be forbidden to the Jews but they were made permissible for Mohammed's followers. Sahih Muslim vol.1 book 3 p.198 footnote 571
Mohammed knew the Israelites could not drink camel's milk. A group of lost Israelites were cursed and changed into rats. As proof that these rats used to be Jews, if you put camel milk in front of a rat the rat will not drink it, but a rat will drink sheep's milk. Bukhari vol.4 book 54 no.524 p.333
"'Abd Allah b. Abu Bakr reported : The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said : May the Lord destroy the Jews! When fat was prohibited to them, they sold it and consumed its cost.504" Footnote 504 says, "It means that it is not right to sell a thing which is not lawful to eat." Muwatta' Malik book 32 ch.537 no.1669 p.391.
In the New Testament
All foods forbidden to Jews are pronounced lawful to eat (Acts 10:9-16; Mark 7:19; Acts 15:5-29).
Except that the Jerusalem council instructed even non-Jews not to eat blood, food sacrificed to idols or strangled animals (which would still have the blood in the meat) (Acts 15:20).
What Do the Hadiths Say about Killing non-Muslims who Should not be killed?
"He who kills those who signed the accords and those who received our guarantees of safety will not smell the fragrance of paradise," the Saudi Arabian mufti Sheik Abdulaziz al-Sheik said in an interview published in the al-Riyadh newspaper in 2001. He is echoing what is said in Bukhari vol.4 no.391 p.259 and Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 no.2686-2687 p.90.
"Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Amr: The Prophet said, 'Whoever killed a person having treaty with the Muslims, shall not smell the smell of Paradise though its smell is perceived from a distance of forty years." Bukhari vol.4 no.391 p.259
1. Sura 6:121 said that Muslims could not eat meat over which Allah's name had not been pronounced. Some shortsighted people stop there without also reading Sura 5:5 that Muslims can also lawfully eat the food of the People of the Book [Christians and Jews], and vice versa.
2. Abu Dawud vol.2 book 10 ch.1041 no.2811 p.791 says that Sura 5:5 abrogated [at least part of] Sura 6:121.
3. However, one could argue against the hadith that Sura 5:5 abrogated Sura 6:121, because Bukhari vol.3 book 34 ch.6 no.273 p.156 and other hadiths say that if Allah's name was not pronounced over the meat, then pronounce Allah's name over it, and then eat it.
4. Muslims have in many ways less strict laws on meat than Jews, and Christians have less strict rules on meat than Muslims.
5. But regardless of abrogation or not, Muslims are lawfully allowed to eat the meat of Christians and Jews, at least if they say Allah's name over it before eating it.
6. Muslims who want to restrict other Msulims from following Sura 5:5 either need to show evidence why Muslims should ignore this verse of the Qur'an, or else they are modern innovators.
7. However, there are some additional restrictions and allowances on Muslims eating meat. To get a more complete picture, please read part 2.
Islam and Meat - part 2
Part 1 proved from the Hadiths and Qur'an that Muslims are allowed to eat meat slaughtered by people of the Book (Jews and Christians). However, there are some additional details on what meat Muslims can and cannot eat.
Animals Should be killed with Knives, Arrows, or Similar, but Not Teeth or Nails
"The Prophet said, 'Eat what is slaughtered (with any instrument) that makes blood flow out, except what is slaughtered with a tooth or a nail.'" Bukhari vol.7 book 67 ch.20 no.414 p.301
"My grandfather, Rafi said, 'We were in the company of the Prophet at Dhul Hulaifa, and the people suffered from hunger. We got some camels and sheep (as booty) and the Prophet was still behind the people. They hurried and put the cooking pots on the fire. (When he came) he ordered that the cooking pots should be upset and then he distributed the booty (amongst the people) regarding ten sheep as equal to one camel then a camel fled and the people chased it till they got tired, as they had a few horses (for chasing it). So a man threw an arrow at it and caused it to stop (with Allah's Permission). On that the Prophet said, 'Some of these animals behave like wild beasts, so, if any animal flee from you, deal with it in the same way.' My grandfather asked (the Prophet ), 'We hope (or are afraid) that we may meet the enemy tomorrow and we have no knives. Can we slaughter our animals with canes?' Allah's Apostle replied, 'If the instrument used for killing causes the animal to bleed profusely and if Allah's Name is mentioned on killing it, then eat its meat (i.e. it is lawful) but won't use a tooth or a nail and I am telling you the reason: A tooth is a bone (and slaughtering with a bone is forbidden), and a nail is the slaughtering instrument of the Ethiopians.'" Bukhari vol.4 book 52 ch.191 no.309 p.197-198. Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.826 no.4846 p.1088, Bukhari vol.3 book 44 ch.16 no.684 p.413, Bukhari vol.3 book 44 ch.3 no.668 p.403, and Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 27 ch.5 no.3178 p.387 say similar. They also mention that a nail [spike] cannot be used, the only reason being given that it is used by the Ethiopians [of Africa].
Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.810 no.4732 p.1065 and no.4737 p.1066 say that you cannot eat an animal beaten to death or killed with a blunt object. See also Muwatta' Malik book 9 ch.298 no.1026-1027 p.221.
Don't Eat Animals with Fangs or Talons
"Allah's Apostle forbade the eating of the meat of beasts having fangs." Bukhari book 67 ch.29 no.438 p.313. Bukhari vol.7 book 71 ch.57 no.672 p.451-452 the last part of Bukhari vol.7 book 67 ch.28 no.435 p.312, and Abu Dawud vol.3 book 21 ch.1436 no.3793-3797 p.1071-1072.
Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.812 no.4748-4755 p.1068-1069 also say it is unlawful to eat fanged beasts and birds with talons.
Muslims cannot eat fanged beasts. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 28 no.3232-3234 p.414-415
Muwatta' Malik 1 25.4.13 "Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shibab from Abu Idris al-Khawlani from Abu Thalaba al-Khushani that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'It is haram [forbidden] to eat animals with fangs.'"
Muwatta' Malik 1 25.4.14 "Yahya related to me from Malik from Ismail ibn Abi Hakim from Abiyda ibn Sufyan al-Hadrami from Abu Hurayra that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Eating animals with fangs is haram. [forbidden]'"
Inconsistency on Hyenas
But Muslims can eat hyena, even though it has fangs, according to Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 28 no.3236-3237 p.416-417; Abu Dawud vol.3 book 21 ch.1435 no.3792 p.1071. The Shafi'ite school also agrees that hyenas are halal [lawful to eat]. However, despite these hadiths, many other Muslims consider hyena haram because of the hadiths on fanged animals.
Cannot Eat Animals killed with Falcon's Talons or Dog's Fangs
Muwatta' Malik 2233: "Malik said, 'The best of what I have heard about retrieving game from the falcon's talons or from the dog's fangs and then waiting until it dies, is that it is not halal to eat it.'"
Muwatta' Malik 2235: "Malik said, 'The same applies to anything which could have been slaughtered by the hunter when it was in the talons of the falcon or the fangs of the dog. If the hunter leaves it until the falcon or dog has killed it, it is not halal to eat it either'. He continued, 'The same thing applies to any game hit by a hunter and caught while still alive, which he neglects to slaughter before it dies.'"
But Eating Game Caught with Hunting Dogs is OK
"Narrated 'Adi bin Hatim: I asked the Prophet, 'I send off (for a game) my trained hunting dogs; (what is your verdict concerning the game the hunt?' He said, 'If you send off your trained hunting dogs and mention the Name of Allah, then, if they catch some game, eat (thereof). And if you hit the game with a mi'rad (a hunting tool) and it wounds it, you can eat (it).'" Bukhari vol.9 book 93 ch.13 no.494 p.365-366. A mi'rad is an arrow with a blunt end. See also Abu Dawud vol.2 book 10 ch.1051 no.2841 p.800-801.
"As for your saying that you are in the land of game, if you hunt something with your bow, mention Allah's Name and eat; and if you hunt something with your trained hound, mention Allah's Name and eat; and if you hunt something with your untrained hound and get it alive, slaughter it and you can eat of it." Bukhari vol.7 book 67 ch.14 no.404 p.295. See Muwatta' Malik book 9 ch.299 no.1029-1031 p.221
Eating Game Killed by Trained Hunting Dog's Fangs is OK
'Adi b. Hatim reported: I said: Messenger of Allah, I set off trained dogs and they catch for me (the game) and I recite the name of Allah over it (I slaughter the game by reciting Bismillah-i-Allah-o-Akbar), whereupon he said: When you set off your trained dogs and you recited the name of Allah (while setting them off), then eat (the game). I said: Even if these (the trained dogs) kill that (the game)? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Even if these kill, but (on the condition) that no other dog, which you did not set off (along with your dogs), participates (in catching the game)." Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.810 no.4732 p.1065. See also Abu Dawud vol.2 book 10 ch.1051 no.2841 p.800-801.
On the other hand, Abu Dawud vol.2 book 10 ch.1051 no.2848 p.802 says that if your trained dog and some other dog together killed some game, do not eat of it.
Cannot Eat Pork (Swine)
Sura 5:3a "Forbidden to you (for food) Are: dead meat, blood, The flesh of swine, and that On which hath been invoked The name of other than Allah; That which hath been Killed by strangling, Or by a violent blow, Or by a headlong fall, Or by being gored to death; That which hath been (partly) Eaten by a wild animal;..."
Muslims are forbidden even to sell wine, carcasses, pigs, and idols. Sahih Muslim vol.3 book 9 no.3840 p.830
Mohammed forbade selling or using wine, dead meats, and pigs. Abu Dawud vol.2 no.3478-3484 p.991-992
In the year of the Conquest of Mecca, Mohammed forbade the sale of wine, carcasses (including the fat), pigs, and idols. Ibn-i-Majah vol.3 book 12 no.2167 p.304-305
Sura 2:173 He hath only forbidden you dead meat, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that on which any other name hath been invoked besides that of Allah. But if one is forced by necessity, without
wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits,- then is he guiltless.
Pig's Blood is like Playing Chess
Mohammed said, "He who played chess is like one who dyed his hand with the chess and blood of swine [pigs]." Sahih Muslim vol.4 book 25 no.5612 p.1222
Cannot Eat Donkey Meat
"Narrated Abu Tha'alba: Allahs' Apostle prohibited the eating of donkey's meat. The first part of Bukhari vol.7 book 67 ch.28 no.435 p.312. See also Bukhari vol.7 book 67 ch.14 no.405 p.295 and Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 27 ch.13 no.3192 p.393-394 and no.3194-3195 p.394-395. Abu Dawud vol.3 book 21 ch.1436 no.3797 p.1072 also prohibits eating horses, mules, and domestic donkeys.
Anas (Allah be pleased with him) reported that an Announcer of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came to us and said: Verifly Allah and His Messenger prohibited eating of the flesh of asses because it is filthy." Sunan Nasa'i vol.1 book 1 ch.55 no.70 p.158. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 27 ch.13 no.3196 p.395 says similar.
"As for the milk of she-asses, we have learnt that Allah's Apostle forbade the eating of their meat, but we have not received any information whether drinking of their milk is allowed or forbidden.' As for the bile of wild animals, Ibn Shihab said, 'Abu Idris Al-Khaulani told me that Allah's Apostle forbade the eating of the flesh of every wild beast having fangs.'" Bukhari vol.7 book 71 ch.57 no.672 p.451-452
See also Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.814 no.4763-4778 p.1071-1073.
Inconsistency on Horses
"Jabir b. 'Abdullah reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) prohibited eating of the flesh of domestic asses on the Day of Khaibar, and permitted the cooking of the flesh of horses." Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.815 no.4779 p.1073. However, the English translator's footnote says that Imam Shafi'i and other teach that the flesh of horses is lawful, but Imam Malik and Imam Abu Hanifa say it is abominable.
Abu Dawud vol.3 book 21 ch.1436 no.3797 p.1072 and vol.3 book 21 ch.1429 no.3781a p.1068 prohibits eating horses, and says that Malik held this view. On the other hand vol.3 book 21 ch.1429 no.3779-3780,3781b p.1068 allows eating horses.
"Asma' (Allah be pleased with her), Abu Bakr's daughter, is reported to have said, 'We slaughtered a horse by slitting the throat and ate out of its flesh during the life-time of Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 27 ch.12 no.3190 p.392
What About Mules (1/2 horse, 1/2 donkey)?
"Jabir b. 'Abdullah (Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said, 'We used to eat the flesh of horses.' I said, 'What is the (religious verdict) about (the flesh of) the mule?' He said, 'It is permissible.'" Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 27 ch.14 no.3197 p.396.
However, Abu Dawud vol.3 book 21 ch.1436 no.3797 p.1072 also prohibits eating horses, mules, and domestic donkeys.
"Khalid b. Walid (Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said, 'Allah's Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) forbade the eating of the flesh of horses, mules and asses.'
As-Sanadi said, 'It is said that the scholars of hadith have consensus on the hadith being da'if [weak]. Nawawi has mentioned it while some scholars have mentioned that it is null and void hadith and still some other scholars hold that were it proven as authentic, it would not have contradicted Jarir's hadith." Ibn-i-Majah book 27 ch.14 no.3198 p.396.
But Cannot eat or Drink out of Gold of Silver Vessels
Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.864 no.5126-5140 p.1139-1140.
No silver utensils, silken saddles, or silk clothes. Bukhari vol.8 book 74 no.235 p.167
Men and women are not allowed to eat from gold or silver vessels. Sahih Muslim vol.3 book 22 no.5126-5127 p.1139
Men cannot wear silk or brocade. All Muslims cannot drink from gold or silver vessels. Abu Dawud vol.3 no.3714 and footnote 3168 p.1053
No gold, silver, silk, or brocade. Sunan Nasa'i vol.2 no.1943 p.484
Do not drink from silver or gold utensils. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 30 no.3413-3415 p.507
A person who drinks from a silver vessel brings the fire of Jahannam into his belly." Muwatta' Malik book 32 ch.434 no.1654 p.387
Cannot Eat with Your Left Hand
"Jabir b. 'Abd Allah reported: The Apostle of Allay (may peace be upon him) forbade eating with the left hand, ..." Muwatta' Malik book 32 ch.531 no.1648 p.385-386.
"'Abd Allah b. 'Umar reported : The Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) said : When any of you eats, let him eat with the right hand. If you drink, drink with the right hand, for Satan eats with the left hand and drinks with the left." Muwatta' Malik book 32 ch.531 no.1649 p.386
The Qu'ran Warns Against Inventing New Rules and Saying they are Allah's
Sura 6:144 "Of camels a pair, and oxen a pair; say, hath He forbidden the two males, or the two females, or (the young) which the wombs of the two females enclose? - Were ye present when Allah ordered you such a thing? But who doth more wrong than one who invents a lie against Allah, to lead astray men without knowledge? For Allah guideth not people who do wrong."
Sura 6:138 "And they say that such and such cattle and crops are taboo, and none should eat of them except those whom - so they say - We wish; further, there are cattle forbidden to yoke or burden, and cattle on which, (at slaughter), the name of Allah is not pronounced; - inventions against Allah's name: soon will He requite them for their inventions."
Sura 6:93 "Who can be more wicked than one who inventeth a lie against Allah, or saith, 'I have received inspiration," when he hath received none, or (again) who saith, 'I can reveal the like of what Allah hath reveled'?"
Forbidden to Eat Too Much Meat
"Yahya b. Sa'id reported that 'Umar b. al-Khattab said : Avoid (taking excess of) meat, for meat becomes a habit like that of wine (and it becomes difficult to give it up)." Muwatta' Malik book 32 ch.538 no.1679 p.393.
But Eating Meat is OK
Sura 6:142 Of the cattle are some for burden and some for meat: eat what Allah hath provided for you, and follow not the footsteps of Satan: for he is to you an avowed enemy.
Sura 6:145 Say: "I find not in the message received by me by inspiration any (meat) forbidden to be eaten by one who wishes to eat it, unless it be dead meat, or blood poured forth, or the flesh of swine,- for it is an abomination - or, what is impious, (meat) on which a name has been invoked, other than Allah's'. But (even so), if a person is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits,- thy Lord is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful."
Eating meat is allowed in Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. Jesus ate meat, because as a law-abiding Jew he ate the Passover lamb. Jesus also ate fish in the presence of the disciples in Luke 24:42-43.
Feed Other Muslims, Not Non-Muslims
In feeding poor people for kaffara, "One must only feed Muslims and one does not feed anyone outside of the deen [community of faith] of Islam." Muwatta' Malik 38.7.12
In Islam there are many rules about what animals may be eaten. They have to be killed with a sharp object (but not a nail), no animals with fangs or talons (with hyenas maybe being an exception), can be killed by trained hunting dogs under certain circumstances, cannot eat donkeys, but unclear on horses and mules. A Muslim cannot eat anything out of gold or silver vessels, eat with his or her left hand. While eating meat is OK, you cannot eat an (unspecified) amount of too much meat. But be careful about making up additional rules on eating meat.
Even though Christians can eat all kinds of meat, meat and other food is prominent in Christianity too. Both the Old Testament andNew emphasized feeding the poor, and Christians do so, regardless of the religion of the poor person.
Islam and Meat - part 3
Part 1 showed that according to the Qur'an and hadiths it is fine for Muslims to eat meat slaughtered by Jews and Christians. Part 2 showed other dietary laws on meat forbidden and allowed for Muslims. Part 3 specifically shows the status of meat that was to be for a sacrifice, but it was slaughtered before the sacrificial prayer was said over it. The meat is still lawful for Muslims to eat, but it does not count as the sacrifice. A second animal must be slaughtered to count as the sacrifice.
"The Prophet said (on the day of Idal-Adha), 'The first thing we will do on this day of ours, is to offer the ('Id) prayer and then return to slaughter the sacrifice. Whoever does so, he acted according to our Sunna (tradition), and whoever slaughtered (the sacrifice) before the prayer, what he offered was just meat he presented to his family, and that will not be considered as Nusak (sacrifice).' (On hearing that) Abu Burda bin Niyar got up, for he had slaughtered the sacrifice before the prayer, and said, 'I have got a six month old ram.' The Prophet said, 'Slaughter it (as a sacrifice) but it will not be sufficient for any-one else (as a sacrifice after you). Al-Bara' added: The Prophet said, 'Whoever slaughtered (the sacrifice) after the prayer, he slaughtered it at the right time and followed the tradition of the Muslims.'" Bukhari vol.7 book 68 ch.1 no.453 p. 322-323
"The Prophet said on the day of Nahr, 'Whoever has slaughtered his sacrifice before the prayer, should repeat it (slaughter another sacrifice).' A man got up and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! This is a day on which meat is desired.' He then mentioned his neighbors saying, 'I have a six month old ram which is to me better than the meat of two sheep.' The Prophet allowed him to slaughter it as a sacrifice, but I do not know whether this permission was valid for other than that man or not. The Prophet then went towards two rams and slaughtered them, and then the people went towards some sheep and distributed them among themselves." Bukhari vol.7 book 68 ch.4 no.457 p.324-325
"I heard the Prophet delivering a sermon, and he said (on the Day of 'Id-Allah. a), 'The first thing we will do on this day of ours is that we will offer the 'Id prayer, the we will return and slaughter our sacrifices; and whoever does so, then indeed he has followed our tradition, and whoever slaughtered his sacrifice (before the prayer), what he offered was just meat that he presented to his family, and that was not a sacrifice.' Abu Burda got up and said, 'O Allah's Apostle! I slaughtered the sacrifice before the prayer and I have got a Jadha'a which is better than an old sheep.' The Prophet said, 'Slaughter it to make up for that, but it will not be sufficient for anybody else after you.'" Bukhari vol.7 book 68 ch.11 no.467 p.331
"The Prophet said, 'Whoever slaughtered the sacrifice before the 'Id prayer, should repeat it (slaughter another one).' A man said 'This is the day on which meat is desired.' Then he mentioned the need of his neighbors (for meat) and the Prophet seemed to accept his excuse. The man said, 'I have a Jadha'a which is to me better than two sheep.' The Prophet allowed him (to slaughter it as a sacrifice). But I do not know whether this permission was general for all Muslims or not. The Prophet then went towards two rams and slaughtered them, and the people went towards their sheep and slaughtered them." Bukhari vol.7 book 68 ch.12 no.468 p.331-332
"The Prophet said, 'Whoever slaughtered (his sacrifice) before the 'Id prayer, should slaughter again.' A man stood up and said, 'This is the day on which one has desire for meat,' and he mentioned something about his neighbors. It seemed that the Prophet I believed him. Then the same man added, 'I have a young she-goat which is dearer to me than the meat of two sheep.' The Prophet permitted him to slaughter it as a sacrifice. I do not know whether that permission was valid only for him or for others as well." Bukhari vol.2 book 15 ch.5 no.74 p.39
"The Prophet said, 'The first thing that we should do on this day of ours is to pray and then return to slaughter the sacrifice. So anyone who does so, he acted according to our Sunna (tradition), and whoever slaughtered the sacrifice before the prayer, it was just meat which he presented to his family and would not be considered as Nusuk.' A person from the Ansar named Abu Burda bin Niyyar said, 'O Allah's Apostle! I slaughtered the Nusuk (before the prayer) but I have a young she-goat which is better than an older sheep.' The Prophet I said, 'Sacrifice it in lieu of the first, but it will be not sufficient (as a sacrifice) for anybody else after you.'" Bukhari vol.2 book 14 ch.8 no.82 p.43. Ibn-i-Majah vol.4 book 27 ch.12 no.3154 p.374 says similar.
"The Prophet delivered the Khutba on the day of Nahr ('Id-ul-Adha) and said, 'The first thing we should do on this day of ours is to pray and then return and slaughter (our sacrifices). So anyone who does so he acted according to our Sunna; and whoever slaughtered before the prayer then it was just meat that he offered to his family and would not be considered as a sacrifice in any way. My uncle Abu Burda bin Niyyar got up and said, 'O, Allah's Apostle! I slaughtered the sacrifice before the prayer but I have a young she-goat which is better than an older sheep.' The Prophet said, 'Slaughter it in lieu of the first and such a goat will not be considered as a sacrifice for anybody else after you.'" Bukhari vol.2 book 15 ch.10 no.85 p.45
"Al-Bara' b. 'Azib reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said: The first (act) with which we started our day (the day of 'Id-ul Adha) was that we offered prayer. We then returned and sacrificed the animals and he who did that in fact adhered to our Sunnah (practice). And he who slaughtered the (animal on that day before the 'Id prayer), for him (the slaughtering of animal was directed to the acquiring of) meat for his family, and there is nothing of the sort of sacrifice in it. It was Abu Burda b. Niyar who had slaughtered (the animal before the 'Id prayer). He said: I have a small lamb, of less than one year, but better than that of more than a year. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) qaid: Sacrifice it, but it will not suffice (as a sacrifice) for anyone after you." Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.823 no.4827 p.1085.
Sacrificing before the prayer can be eaten but does not count as a sacrifice is in Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.823 no.4823,4825,4826, 4827
Sacrificing before the prayer can be eaten but does not count as a sacrifice is also implied in Bukhari vol.9 book 93 ch.13 no.497 p.366-367 and Sahih Muslikm vol.4 ch.823 no.4818-4822,4833-4835.
"Anas (b. Malik) reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said on the day of Nahr (Sacrifice): He who slaughtered (the animal as a sacrifice) before the ('Id) prayer. should repeat it (i. e. offer another animal). Thereupon a person stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, that is the day when meat is much desired, and he also made a mention of the need of his neighbour, and perhaps Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) attested it. He (the person who had sacrificed the animal before the 'Id prayer) said: I have a goat of less than one year of age with me and I like it more than two fleshy goats; should I offer it as a sacrifice? He permitted him to do so. He (the narrator) said: I do not know whether this permission was granted to anyone else besides him or not. Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) then turned towards two rams. and he slaughtered them, and the people' came to the goats and got them distributed amongst themselves (for offering them as sacrifice)." Sahih Muslim vol.3 ch.823 no.4833 p.1085-1086.
In Islam there are sacrifices of meat on festival days, but the people get to eat the sacrifice. In Judaism there were may sacrifices for atoning for sins. Some sacrifices the people could eat, with the prist taking a portion, and some were burned where no one benefit from the meat. In Christianity Jesus did away with the need for all aniaml sacrifices but the ultimate sacrifice of Himself, to die on the cross for our sins and then rise from the dead.