Bible Query from
Q: In Tt 1:2, Tt 3:7, and 1 Tim 6:16, do Christians have eternal life now, or is it only the hope of eternal life after you die?
A: Both. We have the certain promise and continuous existence from now to eternity. However, we have to go through a few things, like death and bema-seat judgment, before we receive our eternal, glorified bodies. See also the answer for 1 Timothy 6:16. See the discussion on 1 Corinthians 3:12-15 for more info on the bema-seat judgment.
Q: In Tt 1:2 (NET Bible, NIV), should this say God who "does not lie" or "cannot lie" like KJV, NASB, uNASB, NKJV, and Wuest?
A: Greenís literal transliteration says "non-lying God". While the Greek word in this particular verse could be taken either way, the intent of Titus 1:2 says that we can trust that God does not default on His word as The Bible Knowledge Commentary : New Testament p.762 says. Hebrews 6:18 also flatly says it is impossible for God to lie.
Williams Translation, RSV, and NRSV have "God, who never lies".
Q: In Tt 1:2, does "before the beginning of time" mean time as we know it had a beginning, or is it just an expression for a long time ago?
A: Christians today disagree. However, the concept of time having a beginning was known to ancient writers such as Philo the Jew (15/20 B.C. Ė 50 A.D.), in On the Creation chapter 7 (26) p.5.
Q: Why do Tt 1:6-8 and 1 Tim 3:2-7 differ slightly in their qualifications for elder?
A: Paul was giving two complementary descriptions of a qualified elder, but Paul did not give a definition of a qualified elder. Paul was not laying down an exhaustive list of rules, for in different times and cultures there might be other things to consider too. Rather, Christian leaders are to use their godly judgment in choosing elders, and the qualifications in Titus 1:6-8 and 1 Timothy 3:2-7 together are a minimum list, not an exhaustive list.
Q: In Tt 1:7,11 and 1 Pet 5:2 (KJV), what is "filthy lucre"?
A: This King James Version expression means "dishonest gain".
Q: In Tt 1:9 (KJV), what is a gainsayer?
A: This King James Version expression refers to "naysayers" who oppose the Gospel.
Q: In Tt 1:10 (KJV), who are "they of the circumcision"?
A: These are not just the Jews who trusted in their Jewish tradition and circumcision instead of Christ. This also refers to people called Judaizers, who were false Christians and even some misguided genuine Christians. Judaizers were deceived in trusting in Jewish tradition and Godís Law apart from Christ. Even today, there are many who trust in various rituals and rival traditions, which though not necessarily evil in themselves, have become an evil for people who trust in their tradition and ritual more than Christ.
Q: In Tt 1:11, what are Calvinist and non-Calvinist understandings of this verse and the offer of the Gospel to all?
A: Some Calvinists say the Gospel is not offered to all. Hyper-Calvinist A.W. Pink in The Sovereignty of God says, "Concerning the character and contents of the Gospel the utmost confusion prevails today. The Gospel is not an Ďofferí to be bandied around by evangelistic peddlers. The Gospel is no mere invitation, but a proclamation,... No man is asked to believe that Christ died for him in particular. ... The Gospel, in brief, is this: Christ died for sinners, you are a sinner, believe in Christ, and you shall be saved." (p.209 italics in the original). Note the subtlety here: Since Christ died for sinners, and you are a sinner, a sinner could easily think Christ died for them. However, Pink really thinks that Christ died for some sinners, of which you may or not be one of those. To round out Pinkís view, Pink believed in preaching the Gospel (ibid p.210), and that we should be active and not fatalistic in preaching, and doing Christian work.
Non-Calvinists and other Calvinists believe the Gospel is offered to all. The following is from a booklet by a Calvinist.
In the booklet Sinners, Jesus Will Receive, the forward by James Boyce says "According to the way hyper-Calvinists think about such things today, Jesus must have made a mistake when he explained so much of the gospel to Nicodemus, as recorded in John 3. ... Nicodemus was not born again. So according to the way these persons think, Jesus should have stopped the discussion right there. ĎCome back later when you are born again,í he should have said.... Jesus knew precisely what he was doing. ... Pastor Bill Payne of Canada knows this and wishes all other Calvinists knew it too, which is why he has written this small booklet. Particularly, it grieves him that so many use good theology to undercut the responsibility we have as Christians to do the equally good work of inviting sinners to come to Jesus Christ."
William Payne, in his booklet, Sinners, Jesus will Receive, on p.23 he says, "The problem of holding the balance between the Reformed faith, the doctrine of limited atonement being a part of that, and the universal offer was also seen in England. This may be seen in the history of Andrew Fuller, one of the great names forever identified with William Carey in the work of missions. Fuller, who was born in 1754, had been brought up under a ministry influenced by the type of preaching which did not believe in the universal offer. It was, as one expressed it "preaching of the Gill types." Fuller was called to the pastorate at the age of 21, and early in his ministry he received help from the writings of Bunyan and Gill. However he soon realized that there was a great difference between the two men. Whilst they both adhered firmly to Calvinistic theology, limited atonement included, Bunyan obviously felt no hesitancy in inviting all sinners everywhere to come to Christ, whereas Gill would never do such a thing. After much prayer and study Fuller came to the conclusion that Bunyan was scriptural in this, and that Gill was not. Fullerís convictions eventually led to his writing the famous book called The Gospel Worthy of All Acceptation, and it was a direct result of this book that Carey went with the gospel to India.... We would add this note in leaving this brief historical sketch, that in departing from the hyper-Calvinistic position where there was no free offer of the gospel men such as Boston and Fuller did not become Arminians!" p.23
On p.22 Payne says, "The fact that Hyper-Calvinism had gripped much of the Church of Scotland at that point is attested to by the fact that the republishing of the Marrow caused a great stir, and that it was condemned by the general assembly of the Church of Scotland."
John Calvin himself believed the Gospel was offered to all. "The mercy of God is offered equally to those who believe and to those who believe not." according to the pamphlet Sinners Jesus Will Receive p.21. Non-
Calvinist Christians all believe the gospelís offer of salvation should be proclaimed to all.
Q: In Tt 1:12, why was Paul quoting from a non-Biblical source?
A: Paul was free to quote any true saying he wished. See the discussion on Acts 17:16-34 and When Critics Ask p.507 for more info.
Q: In Tt 1:12, why does Paul appear to be insulting the Cretans?
A: Paul actually was quoting from their own literature, a famous Cretan poet Epimenides (6th century B.C.). The same Epimenides that Paul quoted in Acts 17:28. Neither Paul nor Epimenides meant that every Cretan, Epimenides included, never told a single truth. Rather, Cretans were prone to lying.
Paul is not being either humorous or insulting here. The objective truth is that people of some cultures are more prone to some sins. Sometimes there is a genetic basis, such as North American Indians and alcoholism, and other times a culture has prevailing sins with no genetic basis at all, but due to external factors. For example, at one time a great number of people in China were opium addicts, due to the British winning the opium wars to protect their supposed "right" to export opium to China. What do you think are the dominant sins of your culture?
Clement of Alexandria (Stromata (193-202 A.D.) book 1 ch.14 p.313 affirms Paulís words about Cretans.
The Greek poet Callimachus also said something very similar. Athenagoras (177 A.D.) quotes Callimachusí Hymn to Jupiter 8 sq., "The Cretans always lie; for they, O king, Have built a tomb to thee who are not dead." A Plea for Christians ch.29 p.145. Origen also uses the same argument in Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.43 p.481. This quote is interesting because it is showing an inconsistency in the Greek pagan religion. While the Cretans built a tomb to honor the dead Jupiter, how could he still be worshipped if he is still dead and his body is in the tomb? If Jupiter is not living, then there is no point in worshipping him or praying for his help. But if the Greeks thought Jupiter has come to life again, then they should not think resurrection of the dead out of the realm of possibility. So basically, one form of lying is "institutional lying", where the whole culture explicitly affirms something that the whole culture can see is not true.
See Hard Sayings of the Bible p.675-676 When Critics Ask p.507 for more info.
Q: In Tt 1:14, what are the Jewish fables Paul is referring to?
A: Scripture does not say. However Jews had a large number of books fables and traditions, preserved today in the apocrypha and pseudepigrapha. This were probably a part of the myths Timothy to command people to avoid in 1 Timothy 1:4.
Q: In Tt 1:15, since all things are pure, what about marijuana, LSD, extortion, rape, etc.?
A: Paul is saying all nutritional foods are legitimate to eat. People should not shoot up or swallow mind-destroying drugs, such as cocaine or LSD, any more than they should eat dung.
Q: In Tt 2:2-6, if Titus is to teach the older men, older women, and young men himself, why not teach the young women?
A: The Bible does not say. However, Christians have noticed this "deliberate omission" and can see at least three reasons.
1. Possible temptation to Titus.
2. Giving the appearance of evil to others, even when both Titus and the women were pure. (2 Corinthians 8:22; 1 Thessalonians 5:22)
3. Not just temptation to the women, but distraction from Timothyís teaching on the truth of God.
When I was an undergraduate at the University of Texas, I had not considered the truth implied by the "deliberate omission" in Titus. Once I brought an attractive Christian woman to my dorm room in college, I shut the door, and we had a Bible study together. After she left, the other guys (non-Christians) teased me about what they accused me of doing alone in my room with the girl. About a week later a different girl came to my room and we had a Bible study, and the guys thought the same thing, despite my protestations of innocence. The next week both girls came together, and as they told me later, either I was one super guy, or maybe I was telling the truth after all. While they eventually completely believed me, it was a mistake for me not to have avoided the appearance of evil.
Q: In Tt 2:8 (KJV), what does "he that is of contrary part" mean?
A: The Greek is literally "he of opposition".
Q: In Tt 2:9, why should slaves be obedient to their masters?
A: The ancient empires ran on slavery, and submitting to slavery was usually the only option. While some owners were kind, many were not. Given that many Christians were slaves, things would generally go better for them if they obeyed rather than disobeyed.
This is also a specific case of what Jesus said in general in Matthew 5:39, "if someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also." 1 Peter 2:18-33 also talks about slaves bearing up under their masters, even harsh ones. See also the discussion on 1 Corinthians 7:21-23.
Q: In Tt 2:9, should slaves be obedient to their master in all things, including ungodly things?
A: No. They were to be an example by obeying their masters, but they were not to disobey God, who is the highest authority.
Q: In Tt 2:10 (KJV), what does "purloin" mean?
A: This colorful archaic word means "steal."
Q: In Tt 2:11, how could the grace that brings salvation appear to men, if all are not saved as the heresy of universalism teaches?
A: It was announced to all on earth, but this did not mean all would choose to benefit from it. The free offer of the Gospel is to be presented to all as Peter did in Acts 2:38. Do you weep for the lost in Luke 19:41? See also 2 Thessalonians 2:8; 1 John 2:2; and 1 Timothy 4:10.
Q: In Tt 2:11, how could the grace that brings salvation appear to all men, since all did not see Jesus?
A: -In three ways.
1. Eventually all people living on earth will know of Jesus and the Gospel and make a decision.
2. It was even announced to those who had died, according to 1 Peter 3:19 and 1 Peter 4:6.
3. In the Millennium all will be resurrected and know of Jesus, according to Revelation 20:5.
Q: Does Tt 2:13 teach that Jesus is God?
A: Yes. Though the Greek is ambiguous, the content is clear. Grammatically the Greek sentence could be paraphrased loosely in two ways:
(a) the appearing of two: 1) our great God, and 2) our Savior, Jesus Christ. (two beings)
(b) the appearing of one: our great God and Savior Jesus Christ. (one being)
However, if it were the first way, when is God the Father going to appear at Christís Second Coming? Since all agree it is Jesus and not the Father that appears at Christís Second Coming, the original meaning was the second way and not the first. This is an important point to share with Jehovahís Witnesses.
John Chrysostomís Greek was so eloquent he was called "Chrysostom" meaning golden-mouthed. Before his martyrdom in 407 A.D., he also wrote on this verse that this could in no way refer to an "appearing" of the Father.
So (b) is correct and so this refers to Jesus as God.
Q: In Tt 2:14 and 1 Pet 2:9, how should this word "peculiar" (KJV) be translated?
A: The Greek word also says how we are special, we are Godís possession! New Age Bible Versions Refuted p.11 mentions that the same Greek word is used in Ephesians 1:14, where the KJV translates it as "possession".
NIV: "a people that are his very own"
NKJV: "His own special people"
Greenís literal translation: "for Himself a people special"
NASB: "a people for his own possession"
uNASB: "a people that are his very own"
NET Bible "a people that are truly his,"
Wuest: "a people of His own private possession"
RSV, NRSV: "a people of his own"
Williams: "a people to be His very own"
However, in Titus 2:14 the whole phrase in KJV in "purify unto Himself a peculiar people", so the KJV still translates the overall meaning fine here.
1 Peter 2:9
NIV: "a people belonging to God"
NKJV: "His own special people" (should have an italicized "His")
Wuest: "a people formed for [Godís own] possession"
Williams: "the people to be His very own"
Greenís literal translation is the closest, saying: "a nation holy, a people for possession"
The KJV translates 1 Peter 2:9 as "But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people ... who hath called you", so it is still accurate, but it could be more precise.
Q: In Tt 2:15 and 1 Tim 4:12, how could Titus and Timothy not let anyone despise them?
A: As far as was possible, they were to resist either fellow Christians or others looking down on them because of their youth.
Q: In Tt 3:1, should Christians obey the government all the time?
A: No. The early Christians distinguished between what they punningly called "legal laws" and "illegal laws", such as sacrificing to the Roman Emperor. They would obey all laws that did not violate Godís law, but they chose to die rather than follow laws that were against God.
Q: In Tt 3:2, since we are to speak evil of no man, why did Paul speak evil of Hymenaeus and Phygellus (2 Tim 1:15), and Hymenaus and Philetus (2 Tim 2:17)?
A: Paul did not mean never to speak negatively about anyone, for Jesus called the Pharisees hypocrites, murderers, and a brood of vipers in Matthew 23:13-36. Paul, John the Baptist, and all of the Old Testament prophets accurately said many negative things about people.
The NIV translates this as "slander" no one. Slander is negative talk that is false and either known to be false, or said without regard for whether or not it is true.
Q: In Tt 3:8, does Christians doing good work profit all, including unbelievers?
A: Four points to consider in the answer.
1. Paul was saying that practicing his teaching was profitable to "those who have trusted in God" in Titus 2:8.
2. Christians doing these things are profitable to everyone, including non-believers in at least two ways. A Christianís life of consistent witness is profitable to unbelievers to help bring them to Christ.
3. As a practical matter, Christians helping the poor, orphans, and the oppressed is profitable to non-believers. In many parts of India for example, at one time most of the hospitals were started by Christian missions and churches.
4. Finally, Christians function as salt and light in society. Light exposes dark things, and salt can slow down the rate of decay of some things.
Q: In Tt 3:9, what are considered foolish questions, and why should we avoid them?
A: Questions that a person asks in sincerely trying to learn the truth about God, or to test the truth of something are not foolish questions. On the other hand, when the answer to a question does not make any difference to either the questioner or responder, it can be a waste of time that distracts people from what they should be learning.
Q: In Tt 3:10, should churchgoers in sin be corrected in humility, or should they be expelled as 1 Cor 5:5?
A: Both are a part of the process, but one must understand the difference between correction and rebuke. Correction is informing someone they are doing wrong when they are unaware of it, and correction is also helping someone in an addictive sin who has come forward for help. Rebuke is warning someone again after they continue to knowingly do wrong.
A churchgoer should be corrected, in humility, when they are doing unintentional wrong or ask for help. A churchgoer should be rebuked, and then expelled, if he or she persists in rebellion.
See When Critics Ask p.508 for more info.
Q: In Tt 3:12, what do we know about the city of Nicopolis?
A: Nicopolis was a large port in Epirus on the western shore of Greece (in Albania today). It was called "Nicopolis", meaning "city of victory" because Octavian (the future Emperor Augustus) founded the city after defeating Mark Antony in the Bay of Actium near there in 31 B.C. There were also six other smaller towns named Nicopolis in Cilicia and Thrace, but this is the only port city that would be on Paulís route.
As both The NIV Study Bible p.1853 and Asimovís Guide to the Bible (p.1147) point out, since Paul was determining where to winter, this indicates he was not a prisoner when he wrote the book of Titus.
The New International Bible Commentary p.1491 points out that Nicopolis was a strategic city for moving into Dalmatia. In Titus 3:12 Paul asked Titus to meet him in Nicopolis, and in 2 Timothy 4:10 Paul says that Titus has gone into Dalmatia. This clue indicates that 2 Timothy was written after Titus.
See The New International Dictionary of the Bible p.708, the Wycliffe Bible Dictionary p.1205, The New Geneva Study Bible p.1929 and The Believerís Bible Commentary p.2145 for more info.
Q: In Tt, how do we know Paul really wrote this book?
A: Titus 1:1 says so, and the early church never questioned that Paul wrote the book of Titus. Clement of Alexandria mentions that Paul wrote Titus in the Stromata (193-202 A.D.) book 1 ch.14 p.313. Paul wrote the letter to Titus after 64 A.D.
Q: In Tt, how do we know if what we have today is a reliable preservation of what was originally written?
A: There are at least three reasons.
1. God promised to preserve His word in Isaiah 55:10-11; Isaiah 59:21; Isaiah 40:6-8; 1 Peter 1:24-25; and Matthew 24:35.
2. Evidence of the early church. Early church writers up to the Council of Nicea I (325 A.D.) quoted from Titus about 22 times, not counting allusions. They quoted 42% of the Book of Titus, counting fractional verses as fractions. That is 19.2 out of 46 total verses.
Here are the eleven pre-Nicene writers who referred to verses in Titus.
Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) quotes half of Titus 3:1b "Ye never grudged any act of kindness, being Ďready to every good work.í" (6 out of 13 words) 1 Clement ch.2 vol.1 p.5
Clement of Rome (96-98 A.D.) The index of the Ante-Nicene Fathers volume 1 also shows references to Titus 1:2 and 2:14, but these are very weak allusions.
Ignatius of Antioch (c.110-117 A.D.) alludes to Titus 1:2 "before the beginning of time" Ignatiusí Letter to the Magnesians ch.6 p.61
Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes part of Titus 3:10 saying it is by Paul. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.16.3 p.341
The Muratorian Canon (170-210 A.D.) ANF vol.5 p.603 mentions Paulís Letter to Titus, as well as Paulís other 12 letters.
Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes Titus 1:12,13 as from Paul in the Epistle of Titus. The Stromata book 1 ch.14 p.313
Tertullian (206/207 A.D.) mentions two epistles to Timothy and one to Titus in Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.21 p.473
Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) alludes to Titus 3:10,11 saying it is "to Titus" in On Prescription Against Heretics ch.6 p.245
Hippolytus (222-235/6 A.D.) quotes half of Titus 2:13. Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.65 p.219
Origen (c.240 A.D.) "But Paul, the Apostle from Israel, one blameless according to the justice in the Law, does say" add quotes Titus 3:3. Homilies on Jeremiah Homily 5 ch.1 p.41 (translated by Jerome)
Novatian (250-257 A.D.) quotes all of Titus 1:15. On the Jewish Meats ch.5 p.648.
Cyprian was a bishop of Carthage from c.248 to his martyrdom in 258 A.D.. He quotes from Titus, simply calling it "To Titus" in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 the third book 78 p.552.
Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions Paul writing Ephesians, First Letter to Timothy, and Titus in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 the third book - Testimonies ch.70-78 p.552.
Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) quotes Titus 3:10 as by Paul. Commentary on Ecclesiastes ch.3.9 p.114
35+ writers after Nicea
Eusebius of Caesarea (318-339/340 A.D.)
Athanasius of Alexandria (367 A.D.) lists the books of the New Testament in Festal Letter 39 p.552
Cheltenham Canon (=Mommsen Catalogue) (ca.360-370 A.D.) refers to Titus
Hilary of Poitiers (355-367/368 A.D.) quotes Titus 1:9-10 as by the "Blessed Apostle Paul" On the Trinity book 8 ch.1 p.137
Synopsis Scripturae Sacrae (350-370 A.D. or 5th century) mentions Paulís Letter to Titus as part of the New Testament. It quotes Titus 1:1-2a.
The schismatic Lucifer of Cagliari/Calaris (370/371 A.D.) refers to Titus 1:10
Ephraim the Syrian (350-378 A.D.)
Basil of Cappadocia (357-378/379 A.D.)
Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.
Ambrosiaster (after 384 A.D.) refers to Titus 1:4,10 (3:1)
Cyril of Jerusalem (c.349-386 A.D.) quotes Titus 2:11 as by Paul in Lecture 1.2 p.104
Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (343-381 A.D.) canon 60 p.159 lists the books of the Old Testament and the New Testament. Canon 59 p.158 says only the canonical books of the Old and New Testaments may be read in church.
Ambrose of Milan (370-390 A.D.) quotes all of Titus 2:1 as by the Apostle. Duties of the Clergy book 1 ch.10 p.6
Gregory of Nanzianzen (330-391 A.D.) quotes half a verse from Titus
Pacian of Barcelona (342-379/392 A.D.)
Amphilochius Iambi ad Seleucum (-394 A.D.) refers to Titus
Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) mentions Titus 2:13 as "writing to his disciple Titus" in Against Eunomius book 11 ch.2 p.232
Gregory of Nyssa (c.356-397 A.D.) refers to Titus 2:9 as by the Apostle in Against Eunomius book 2 ch.14 p.130
Didymus the blind (398 A.D.) refers to Titus 1:5-9 as by the apostle to Titus. Commentary on Zechariah 8 p.162
Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum) (350-400 A.D.) quotes half a verse of Titus
Syrian Catalogue of St. Catherineís (ca.400 A.D.) mentions Titus.
Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.) mentions Philemon, Hebrews, two letters to Timothy, Titus, Romans, Galatians, Philippians, Ephesians. The Panarion section 3 from scholion 1 and 5 p.334
Pope Innocent I of Rome (ca.405 A.D.) mentions Titus.
Rufinusí Commentary on the Apostles Creed (374-406 A.D.) refers to the letters of Paul, implying Titus.
John Chrysostom (396 A.D.) wrote down six sermons on Titus which have been preserved. He says Paul wrote Titus to one of his companions in homily 1.
John Chrysostom (-406 A.D.) wrote commentaries on John, Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Hebrews.
Council of Carthage (218 bishops) (393-419 A.D.) implies the book of Titus.
Jerome (373-420 A.D.) discusses the books of the New Testament. He specifically each of the four gospels, Paul writings to the seven churches, Hebrews, Paul writing to Timothy , Titus, and Philemon. Jerome then discusses the Acts of the Apostles. Then he discusses the seven epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude. Finally he discusses the Apocalypse of John. Letter 53 ch.9 p.101-102.
Sozomen (370/380-425 A.D.) calls Titus 1:15 the Divine word. Sozomenís Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.11 p.247
Augustine of Hippo (388-430 A.D.) says Paul wrote Titus. On the Forgiveness of Sin, and Baptism ch.49 p.33. He also refers to Tt 2:10; 3:1
John Cassian (419-430 A.D.) quotes Titus 2:11-13 as by Paul in Seven Books book 2.5 p.559
Vincent of Lerins (c.434 A.D.)
Socratesí Ecclesiastical History (c.400-439 A.D.) refers to Titus as by the apostle.
Euthalius of Sulca (ca.450 A.D.)
Speculum (fifth century)
Theodoret of Cyrus (423-458 A.D.) refers to Titus
Pope Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.) refers to a verse in Titus as by the Apostle
Prosper of Aquitaine (425-465 A.D.) refers to Titus 3:3-5 as to Titus
Among heretics and spurious books
The Encratite heretic Tatian (-177 A.D.) quotes one-fourth of Titus 1:12 "though some one says that the Cretans are liars." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.27 p.76
The heretic Pelagius (416-418 A.D.) refers to Titus 1:10; (3:15)
The Pelagian heretic Theodore of Mopsuestia (392-423/429 A.D.)
We still have all of these today.
The heretic Marcion rejected the letter of Titus, as he did with many other books of the Bible
3. Earliest manuscripts we have of Titus show there are small manuscript variations, but zero theologically significant errors.
p32 Titus 1:11-15; 2:3-8 (latter half of 2nd century) The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts has a photograph of part of p32 on p.124.
c.200 A.D. - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament.
p61 Romans 16:23,25-27; 1 Corinthians 1:1-2, 2-6; 5:1-3, 5-6, 9-13; Philippians 3:5-9, 12-16, Colossians 1:3-7, 9-13, 1 Thessalonians 1:2-3; Titus 3:1-5, 8-11, 14-15 Philemon 4-7. c.700 A.D.
c.700 A.D. - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament.
About 700 A.D. - 1975 - Aland et al. third edition.
About 700 A.D. - 1998 - Aland et al. fourth revised edition.
Sinaiticus [Si] 340-350 A.D.
Titus was not preserved in Vaticanus
Alexandrinus [A] c.450 A.D.
Bohairic Coptic [Boh] 3rd/4th century
Sahidic Coptic [Sah] 3rd/4rth century
I Washington D.C. 5th century (Titus 2:10, others?)
Gothic 493-555 A.D.
Ephraimi Rescriptus [C] 5th century
Claromontanus [D] 5th/6th century
Ethiopic [Eth] from c.500 A.D.
See www.BibleQuery.org/Titus Manuscripts.html for more on early manuscripts of Titus.
For more info please contact Christian Debater™ P.O. Box 144441 Austin, TX 78714. www.BibleQuery.org